Historically, Punjab has been India’s rice bowl; the land where the green revolution took place and delivered India from the throes of food insecurity. With the fruit of the green revolution wearing away, Punjab is focusing on industrial growth and creating an appropriate infrastructure for it. Matters changed for Punjab with the state’s Industrial Policy 2003 that focused on infrastructure and speedy clearance of new projects. Punjab (area 50,362 square kms) has had a dominant industrial presence of small scale units (some 200,000 units of them) but things are slowly changing with medium and large-sized investments coming into the state in areas of IT, ITeS and biotechnology. Besides, Punjab has a rich textiles and garments base.

The capital city is Chandigarh, designed by Le Corbusier, which Punjab still shares with Haryana. There are three rivers, flowing through the state: Ravi, Beas and the Sutluj.  
Punjab is bordered by Pakistan to its west, where lies the Pakistani province of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir to its north, Himachal Pradesh to its northeast, Haryana to its south and southeast and Rajasthan to its southwest.